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Definition and Application of Metal Cutting Fluid
Time:2019-3-6 15:51:22  Read:607
Cutting fluid (coolant) is a kind of industrial liquid used in metal cutting and grinding process to cool and lubricate cutting tools and workpieces. Cutting fluid is composed of a variety of super functional additives, which are scientifically combined. It has good cooling performance, lubrication performance, rust resistance, oil removal and cleaning function, anti-corrosion function and easy dilution characteristics. It overcomes the shortcomings of traditional soap-based emulsifier, such as easy odor in summer, difficult dilution in winter and poor rust-proof effect, and has no adverse effect on lathe paint. It is suitable for the cutting and grinding of ferrous metals and is the leading grinding product at present. Cutting fluid is superior to saponified oil in every index. It has good cooling, cleaning and rust-proof characteristics, and has the characteristics of non-toxic, tasteless, non-corrosive to human body, non-corrosive to equipment and non-polluting to the environment.


Cutting fluids can be divided into water-soluble (oil-based) and water-soluble (water-based) fluids according to their chemical composition.

Water-based cutting fluids can be divided into emulsion, semi-synthetic cutting fluids and total synthetic cutting fluids.

The classification of emulsifiable, semi-synthetic and total synthetic cutting fluids usually depends on the types of base oils in products: emulsifiable cutting fluids are water-soluble cutting fluids that only use mineral oil as base oil; semi-synthetic cutting fluids are water-soluble cutting fluids that contain both mineral oil and chemical synthetic base oil; and synthetic cutting fluids are water-soluble cutting fluids that use only chemical synthetic base oil (i.e., no mineral oil).

Each type of cutting fluid will contain a variety of additives besides base oil: rust inhibitor, non-ferrous metal corrosion passivator, defoamer and so on.

Some manufacturers will have the classification of microemulsions; they are generally considered to be categories between emulsion and semisynthetic cutting fluids.

The diluent of the emulsion is milky white in appearance; the diluent of the semi-synthetic solution is usually translucent, and some products are partial Milky white; the diluent of the total synthetic solution is usually completely transparent, such as water or with a slight color.



The lubrication of metal cutting fluids (referred to as cutting fluids) in the cutting process can reduce the friction between the rake face and chips, the back face and the machined surface, and form a part of lubrication film, thus reducing the consumption of cutting force, friction and power, reducing the surface temperature and tool wear of the friction part between the tool and the workpiece blank, and improving the cutting performance of workpiece materials. In the grinding process, after adding grinding fluid, the grinding fluid infiltrates into the grinding wheel grain-workpiece and grit-debris to form a lubricating film, which reduces the friction between the interfaces, prevents the abrasive cutting edge from wearing and adhering to chips, thus reduces the grinding force and friction heat, and improves the durability of the grinding wheel and the surface quality of the workpiece.


The cooling effect of cutting fluid is to take the cutting heat away from the cutter and workpiece by convection and vaporization with the cutter (or grinding wheel), chips and workpiece heated by cutting, thus effectively reducing the cutting temperature, reducing the thermal deformation of the workpiece and tool, maintaining the hardness of the cutter, improving the processing accuracy and tool durability. The cooling performance of cutting fluid is related to its thermal conductivity, specific heat, vaporization heat and viscosity (or fluidity). The thermal conductivity and specific heat of water are higher than that of oil, so the cooling performance of water is better than that of oil.


In metal cutting process, cutting fluid is required to have a good cleaning effect. Remove chips, abrasive debris, iron powder, oil and sand particles, prevent contamination of machine tools, workpieces and tools, and keep cutting edges of tools or grinding wheels sharp, without affecting the cutting effect. For oil-based cutting oil, the lower the viscosity, the stronger the cleaning ability. Especially for cutting oil containing kerosene, diesel oil and other light components, the better the permeability and cleaning performance. Surfactant-containing water-based cutting fluid has better cleaning effect, because it can form adsorption film on the surface, prevent particles and sludge from adhering to workpieces, tools and grinding wheels. At the same time, it can penetrate into the interface between particles and sludge, separate it from the interface, take it away with the cutting fluid, and keep the interface clean.


In metal cutting process, the workpiece should be corroded by contact with corrosive media such as cement produced by decomposition or oxidation of environmental medium and cutting fluid components, and the surface of machine tool parts contacted with cutting fluid will corrode accordingly. In addition, when the workpiece is temporarily stored after processing or in the process of flow between working procedures, the cutting fluid is also required to have a certain anti-rust ability to prevent the corrosion of metal caused by environmental media and residual cutting fluid, such as sludge and other corrosive substances. Especially in the wet and rainy season in southern China, more attention should be paid to the rust prevention measures between processes.


In addition to the above four functions, the cutting fluid used should have good stability and no precipitation or stratification, oil precipitation, soap precipitation and aging phenomena occur during storage and use. It has a certain resistance to bacteria and fungi, and is not easy to grow fungi and biodegrade, leading to odor and deterioration. No damage to painted parts, no harm to human body, no irritating odor. No smoke, fog or less smoke during use. It is easy to recover, low pollution, and easy to treat the discharged wastewater. After treatment, it can meet the national standards for industrial wastewater discharge.